Fertility refers to the ability of production of a living being or a land.
This term is mostly used to talk about a couple’s ability to procreate (see family). In every culture and religion, fertility is important. In some religions fertility is embodied by a goddess (for example Artemis in Greek mythology), in other religions it’s a gift from God, reward for being pious (see piety).
In a straight couple, fertility is often considered as the women’s business : for many people, her value is reduced to her ability to give children to her husband, if she can’t have a child, it will be her fault and not the man’s. Nowadays, thanks to the progress of medicine, even a barren couple can have biological children.
Fertility also refers to the ability of a land to produce food and plants that allow humans to survive. This fertility can be altered by climate change or by natural disasters like droughts or floods. Then the land becomes sterile and it can lead to famines and financial problems for farmers.
For a family or a land, fertility is a sign of good fortune, success and prosperity. It allows people to survive and to provide for their families and the future generations.